Male Factor Infertility
Male factor infertility can be either the result of erectile or sexual dysfunction resulting in problems with intercourse, or of quantity, quality and morphology of the sperm resulting in sub-optimal fertilization.
Risk factors associated with male factor infertility include:
Previous operations or trauma involving the area of the genitalia or the nervous system
Previous infections like Chlamydia or Mumps that have caused inflammation of the genitalia
Anatomical malformations like non-descent of the testes
Chronic medical conditions affecting the normal sexual function and/or quality and quantity of sperm. E.g.:
Metabolic disease e.g. Diabetes
The detrimental effect could be the result of the condition itself, or a side effect of medication taken to control the condition. A common example is chemotherapy for cancer, which has a cytotoxic effect on sperm and statins that can reduce sexual drive.
Genetic conditions associated with reduced count, motility and morphology of sperm (oligoastheno-teratozoospermia), or abscence of spermatozoa (azoospermia) as in Cystic Fibrosis, Y-chromosome deletions and Klinefelter Syndrome.