Male Factor Infertility

Male factor infertility can be either the result of erectile or sexual dysfunction resulting in problems with intercourse, or of quantity, quality and morphology of the sperm resulting in sub-optimal fertilization.

Risk factors associated with male factor infertility include:

Structural Abnormalities

Previous operations or trauma involving the area of the genitalia or the nervous system

Previous infections like Chlamydia or Mumps that have caused inflammation of the genitalia

Anatomical malformations like non-descent of the testes

Medical Conditions

Chronic medical conditions affecting the normal sexual function and/or quality and quantity of sperm. E.g.:


Metabolic disease e.g. Diabetes

Autoimmune Conditions


The detrimental effect could be the result of the condition itself, or a side effect of medication taken to control the condition. A common example is chemotherapy for cancer, which has a cytotoxic effect on sperm and statins that can reduce sexual drive.



Genetic Conditions

Genetic conditions associated with reduced count, motility and morphology of sperm (oligoastheno-teratozoospermia), or abscence of spermatozoa (azoospermia) as in Cystic Fibrosis, Y-chromosome deletions and Klinefelter Syndrome.